Course Content

The 3rd year of the E-learning English-spoken Electronics and Optics e-learning for Embedded Systems course comprises 14 TUs and 3 Update Units. The following list presents a description of each TU and the name and contact of the TU coordinator.

TU01 - ICT - Introduction to Virtual Learning environment

TU Coordinator - Abdelhalim Benachenhou (University of Mostaganem)

Coordinator contact - benachenhou_a@yahoo.fr

TU Objectives

The objective of this teaching unit is to prepare students to make the best use of digital tools in order to be able to follow distance learning

TU Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of internet from a user's point of view

TU ECTS credits: 3

TU Content:

1. Work in a digital environment
• Install an Internet browser
• Install plugins (flashplayer, ...)
• Login to the platform, and update its profile
• Use the tools of the platform (forum, chat, virtual classroom, deposit of homework)
• Use the collaboration tools, webmail, instant messaging, ....
2. Draft a document
• Structure and format a document
• Write mathematical equations
• Draw simple diagrams
• Draw electronic circuits
• Basic uses of a spreadsheet
• Using the solver
4. Working in group
• Use the features of document versions
• Write in an online document
• Organizing appointments

Acquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students should know how to make the best use of digital tools in order to be able to follow distance learning courses

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to follow distance learning courses

TU02 - Mathematical and Analysis tools for physics 1

TU Coordinator - Claire Darraud (University of Limoges)

Coordinator contact - claire.darraud@xlim.fr

TU Objectives

The objective of this technical unit is to have the necessary skills for the development of mathematical tools in physics especially in electronics and optics
Mathematics is an objective way of reasoning about relationships and quantities and this is important to Physics

TU Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of mathematics

TU ECTS credits: 4

TU Content:

1. Differential geometry and linear algebra
• Systems of coordinates and transformations among them
• Vector fields
• Partial derivations and differentiation of functions
• Volume and surface differential elements for integration
• Definition of flow and circulation of a vector field
• Integral theorems (divergence theorem and Stokes Theorem)
• Matrices and operators, linear systems solving (Kramer, inverse matrix, Gauss method...)
2. Analysis
• Differential Equations solving (2nd order, linear with constant coefficients and second member)
• Convolution
• Mathematics transforms (Laplace (including differential equations and integral equations solving), Fourier (links with simple diffraction systems)

Acquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students should know how use mathematical tools in Physics, particularly in Electronics and Optics

AcquiredAcquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to apply the mathematical tools in the field of Electronics and Optics

TU03 - Communication techniques in English

TU Coordinator - Monji Kherrallah (University of Sfax)

Coordinator contact - monji.kherallah@gmail.com

TU Objectives

At the end of this Unit, the student will be able to:
• understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in their field of specialization
• interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party
• produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options

TU Prerequisites

None

TU ECTS credits: 3

TU Content:

1. Cultural Diversity and Socializing
• small talk and socializing
• English conversations in career and daily life
• using the telephone
2. Presentations, Meetings and Negotiations
• presentations
• meetings
• negotiation
3. The World of Work
• looking for a job
• workplace communication
4. Practicl works
• case study

TU04 - Analog electronics for embedded systems

Coordinator contact - ankrim@uca.ma

TU Objectives

The aims of this course are to give students basic knowledge of analog and digital electronics.
The design and analysis of amplifiers both in time and frequency domains, operational amplifier and filtering are covered. After taking this course, student should have tools to be able to analyze and design electronic circuits for signal detection and processing.

TU Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of:

1. electrical network laws and theorems
2. alternative current - electromagnetism
3. basic mathematics
4. junction diode modeling and application circuits

TU ECTS credits: 4

TU Content:

1. The semi-conductor
• introduction to semi-conductors:
• semiconductor basics
• N-type semiconductor
• P-type semiconductor
• electrical conduction in semiconductors
• PN junction
2. Junction transistors
• bipolar junction transistor application:
• bias circuits
• mathematical modeling of temperature effect
• common emitter transistor temperature stability
• BJT current source
• Field Effect Transistor - FET:
• device Structure and Physical Operation
• JFET types
• output characteristics
• ID-VGS characteristics
• JFET bias circuits
• BJT and JFET as a switch:
• cut off conditions
• transistor switch in saturation
• analysis of cutoff and saturation regions
3. Low frequency, small signal, based transistor amplifiers
• bipolar Junction transistor:
• ideal amplifier characteristics
• transistor small-signal model
• input characteristic
• output characteristic in active mode
• common-emitter with resistance to ground amplifier
• static and dynamic analysis
• output impedance (Early effect)
• dynamic load line and output dynamic
• common-collector amplifier
• field Effect Transistor FET and N-channel FET small signal model:
• linear area vs saturation area
• common source amplifier
4. Amplifiers frequency response
• very low frequency response
• effect of input AC-coupling capacitance
• effect of input and output AC-coupling capacitances
• effect of emitter decoupling capacitance
• high frequency response
• high-frequency dynamic model
• internal trans-conductance
• input resistance, feedback resistance
• current gain study
• stage coupling
• objectives
• capacitive coupling & multistage amplifier
• darlington amplifier
• direct coupling
• cascode amplifier
• differential amplifier
• basic over view power audio amplifier
• transformer-coupled audio power amplifier
• push pull amplifier
• class A, B and AB amplifiers operation
5. Operational amplifier and filtering applications
• real Op-Amp
• definition
• characteristic
• structure of Op-Amp
• static study
• offset error voltage and current
• bias circuit
• dynamic study
• voltage gain
• input impedance
• output impedance
• application
• constant-gain multiplier
• voltage summing
• voltage buffer
• controller sources
• active filtering
• second-order filters
• single feedback filters, multiple feedback filters (Rauch structure)
• controlled source and single feedback filters (Sallen-Key structure)
6. Feedback amplifiers
• classification of amplifiers
• feedback concept
• the transfer gain with feedback
• general characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers
• input and output resistances
• examples
• sinusoidal oscillators
7. Practical Works
• PW 1
• bipolar Junction application
• current voltage vharacteristics and bias circuits
• transistor as switch
• current source
• PW 2
• common-emitter amplifier
• with and without resistance to ground amplifier
• common-collector amplifier
• realization of a voltage amplifier suitable (FET)
• multistage CE amplifier (SPICE and implementation)
• PW 3
• operational amplifier and applications
• measuring the voltage and current offset, and common mode error
• differentiator, integrator, subtractor, weighted adder
• voltage regulator
• gyrateur
• PW 4
• feedback and oscillators
• with resistance to ground amplifier feedback study
• RC feedback, Wien bridge oscillators

Acquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students should know:

• how to analyse and use a Bode diagram
• the distinction between signal diode and rectifier diode
• how to use and calculate circuits comprising diodes
• bias circuits based on bipolar junction transistor and field effect transistor
• how to design and analysis of amplifiers both in temporal, frequency domains
• to analyse multistage amplifiers
• the difference between a transistor amplifier and an operational amplifier
• the concepts of feedback and stability

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able:

• to calculate an electric circuit
• to recognize a power supply circuit and a DC filtering circuit
• to identify a transistor amplifier circuit
• to realize the mounting base with a single operational amplifier
• to study and calculate a active filters
• to implement a sinusoidal oscillator

TU05 - Digital electronics for embedded systems

TU Coordinator - Manuel Gericota (Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto)

Coordinator contact - mgg@isep.ipp.pt

TU Objectives

The aim of this course is to give students basic knowledge of digital electronics.
After taking this course, students should be able to use the appropriate tools to analyze a problem and to design and develop an electronic digital circuit to solve it using a hardware description language.
Concepts and terminology are presented and a variety of topics are covered including Boolean algebra, basic gates, combinational circuits, arithmetic circuits, flip-flops, registers, counters, and finite state machines (sequential circuits).

TU Prerequisites

None

TU ECTS credits: 4

TU Content:

1. Introduction to Digital Systems
• numbers and symbols
• systems of numeration
• decimal versus binary numeration
• binary, octal and hexadecimal to decimal conversion
• conversion from decimal numeration
• boolean algebra
• boolean arithmetic
• boolean algebraic identities
• boolean algebraic properties
• boolean rules for simplication
• the Exclusive-OR function
• DeMorgan's theoremsconverting truth tables into boolean expressions
• logic Gates
• digital signals and elementary gates
• logic signal voltage levels
• boolean functions with VHDL
2. Combinational Logic Design and Regular Sequential Circuits
• arithmetic functions
• two's complement
• binary subtraction
• digital comparator
• encoders and decoders
• multiplexers
• priority encoders
• parity checkers
• Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
• latches
• flip-flops
• shift registers, ring counter
3. Sequential Logic Design and Finite State Machines
• state diagrams and ASM charts
• clocking and timing diagrams
• Moore and Mealy Finite State Machines (FSM)
• state machines in VHDL
4. Complex Sequential Systems
• Finite State Machines with Datapath (FSMD)
5. Practical Works
• introduction to design tools
• implementation of combinational logic using VHDL and test benches
• state machine implementation using VHDL
• finite State Machines with Datapath using VHDL

AcquiredAcquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students should know to
• recognize different types of number systems;
• identify and define number, base/radix, positional notation and most and least significant digits and their relation with decimal, octal, hexadecimal;
• identify the following logic circuit gates and interpret and solve the associated truth tables: AND, OR, Inverters (NOT circuits), NAND, NOR, XOR;
• recognize the laws, theorems, and purposes of Boolean algebra;
• identify multiplexers, encoders, decoders, counters, registers, and clock circuits;
• identify the types of latches and flip-flops used in digital equipment and their functionality;
• identify the different types of Finite State Machines;
• identify the structure of a VHDL module: entities and architectures;
• identify the basic VHDL statements and constructs.

AcquiredAcquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to
• perform conversion operations, basic mathematical and logic operations with different number systems;
• determine the output expressions of logic gates in combination;
• identify general logic states and logic levels;
• describe the functionality of an algorithm using a state diagram;
• implement and simulate VHDL modules;
• implement combinational circuits using VHDL;
• codify simple algorithms in VHDL;
• implement Finite State Machines in VHDL.

TU06 - Wave and propagation for embedded system

TU Coordinator - Nora Aknin (University Abdelmalek Essaâdi of Tetouan)

Coordinator contact - aknin@uae.ma

TU Objectives

The objective of this technical unit is to lead students to
• understand how to formulate Maxwell's laws in the presence of simple materials and solve problems involving them;
• demonstrate understanding of the properties of plane electromagnetic waves in a vacuum, in simple media and to be able to derive these properties from Maxwell's equations;
• solve the propagation equations in lossy medium;
• evaluate the performances of transmissions Medias and waveguides by determining their characteristics.

TU Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of mathematical tools (Vector analysis, integral theorems, Differential Equations solving, complex numbers)
Basic knowledge of Electric field (Electrical field: Coulombs Law, Gauss law Electrostatic field, Electrostatic Potential, Current density vector, Electrical field in Materials)
Basic knowledge of Magnetic field (Biot & Savart law, Laplace force, Ampere's law, Magnetic induction: Faraday's law, Lenz's law)
Derivation of Maxwell's equations from the empirical laws of electromagnetism

TU ECTS credits: 6

TU Content:

1. Maxwell's Equations
2. Fields in media and boundary conditions
• field at a general material interface
• field at a dielectric interface
• field at a electric wall
• the magnetic wall boundary conditions
• electromagnetic spectrum
3. The wave equation
• the Helmholtz equation
• plane wave in a lossless medium
• plane wave in a lossy medium
• plane wave in a good conductor
• general plane wave solutions
• plane wave reflection from a media interface
4. Transmission lines
• the lumped-element circuit model for a transmission line
• transmission line parameters
• the telegrapher equations
• the terminated lossless transmission line
• the Smith chart
• lossy transmission lines
5. Waveguides
• general solutions for TEM, TE and TM waves
• parallel plate waveguide
• rectangular waveguide
• circular waveguide
• coaxical line
• stripline and microstrip
6. Impedance matching and tuning
• matching with limped elements
• tuning with simple stub and double stub
• the Quarter-Wave transformer
7. Practical works
• periodic boundary condition (demonstrates the effect of applying periodic boundary condition, which forces the field potential to be the same on opposite sides of the model)
• analysis of a RG58 cable (propagation velocity and losses)
• analysis of a Pi-cells line part1 (reflection extremities by changing termination loads) in time domain
• analysis of a Pi-cells line part 2 (phase and group velocity)
• analysis of a Slotted Line (measurement of SWR, λg) at a particular frequency

TU07 - Power electronics for embedded systems

TU Coordinator - Abdessamad Malaoui (University Sultan Moulay Slimane of Beni Mellal)

Coordinator contact - a.malaoui@usms.ma

TU Objectives

The objective of this technical unit is to give students know-how to:
• analyze and design power electronics converters and switching power supply
• apply the embedded systems to control power electronics

TU Prerequisites

Electrical network laws and theorems, alternate current, transient response of first order and second order circuits, electromagnetism, mathematical tools (Laplace, Fourier).

TU ECTS credits: 6

TU Content:

1. Power semiconductor devices
• power diodes
• diac, triac
• power transistors
• thyristors
• applications
2. Controlled rectifiers
• topologies
• performance parameters
• rectifier types
• study of 1-phase half-wave rectifier
• application with embedded systems
3. DC-DC converters
• introduction
• different classes of converters
• study of Buck-Boost converter
• switching mode power supply
• control with embedded systems
4. AC-AC/DC-AC converters
• types of AC voltage controllers
• study of 3-Phase AC voltage controllers
• inverters and pulse width modulation
• applications: embedded systems control
5. Practical works
• choppers
• rectifiers
• DC-DC converters
• study of inverters

Acquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students should know how to master the operations and characteristics of different families in power electronics and their performance parameters

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to:
• analyze and design power electronics converters and switching power supplies
• apply the embedded systems to control power electronics

TU08 - Business Communication Techniques in English

TU Coordinator - Monji Kherrallah (University of Sfax)

Coordinator contact - monji.kherallah@gmail.com

TU Objectives

At the end of this Unit, the student must reach the level B2 according to CLES. Consequently, he/she will be able to:
• understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialization
• interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party
• produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options

TU Prerequisites

Level B1 according to the CLES means that student:
• can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc...
• can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken
• can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest
• can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans

TU ECTS credits: 3

TU Content:

1. Workplace profile, equipment and relations
• a tour in the workplace - showing a visitor around
• planning
• presenting
• defining
• describing
• location
• size
• capacity
• materials
• explaining a process
• sequencing
• organizing
• outlining
• tools and equipment
• the building schedule
• stages
• phases
• features
• making progress
• evaluating
• feasibility
• alternatives
• project planning
• making plans
• predictions
• certainty
• uncertainty
• suppliers and subcontractors
• Legal documents
• contracts
• warranties
• guarantees
• insurance
• Personnel
• giving instructions
• placing orders
• requesting information
• delivery
• shipment
2. In-company problems, maintenance and troubleshooting
• buildings and installations
• The building schedule
• stages
• phases
• features
• project planning
• making plans
• predictions
• certainty
• uncertainty
• making progress
• evaluating
• feasibility
• alternatives
• maintenance and preventive maintenance
• expressing worries and concerns
• precautions
• regular services
• repairs
• redesigns
• routines
• common problems
• diagnosing faults
• recommendations
• troubleshooting
• A personal problem
• reporting problems, causes and effects
• an electrical problem
• discussing option solutions to technical problems
• a mechanical problem
• providing technical explanation and solutions
3. Quality, safety and environmental issues
• quality management and control
• quality concerns
• monitoring and control
• tests
• experiments
• results
• benchmarking
• comparing and contrasting
• qualifying
• reverse engineering
• describing technical processes
• hazards
• expressing obligation
• warnings
• regulations
• standards
• machine safety
• requests
• instructions
• notices
• the evacuation procedure
• describing a process
• procedures
• first aid kits
• demonstrate the principles of CPR
• health and environmental matters
• waste disposal
• defending a decision
• defending an opinion
• agreeing
• disagreeing
• eco-friendly products
• consumer satisfaction
• argumentation
• persuasion
4. Practical works
• case study

TU09 - Mathematical and Analysis tools for physics 2

TU Coordinator - Philipe Di Bin (University of Limoges)

Coordinator contact - dibin@xlim.fr

TU Objectives

At the end of this unit student will be able to:
• describe and calculate the properties of random signals
• implement numerical methods for solving usual mathematical problems in electronics and optics

TU Prerequisites

Successful conclusion of TU02 + basic knowledge of:
• integrals and derivatives
• Matlab (initiation)

TU ECTS credits: 3

TU Content:

1. Probabilities and random signals
• The first chapter deals with probabilities applied to random signals in introduction to signal processing of random signals and noise.
• The definitions and properties of real random variables and probability calculations are presented. The transformation of real random variables such as multiplication and sums are detailed in order to calculate the properties of the obtained variables. A particular focus is made on the description of the Gaussian random variable, its use in noise description and the probabilities calculations.
2. Tools for the numerical analysis
• All classical methods of numerical analysis are discussed such as:
• the derivation (First & second order)
• the linear equation solving (dichotomy, Newton, successive approximation)
• the integration methods (Trapeze, Simpson, Gauss Legendre)
• the interpolation and approximation methods (Lagrange, Spline cubic, polynomial approximation and exponential regression)
• the resolution of the differential equations (Euler, Runge-Kutta 2 & 4 order, Adams)
• All equations are demonstrated and operating procedures exposed through exercises and practical work thanks to the use of software and numerical tools on-line developed in AJAX or Java or with Matlab software on a Windows server.
3. Practical works
• derivation
• linear equation solving (dichotomy, Newton etc.)
• integration (Simpson and Gauss Legendre)
• interpolation and approximation (Lagrange, Spline cubic)
• differential equation solving
• gauss pivot for system equation solving

Acquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students would know:
• probabilities and their applications to the description and the processing of random signals (noise) such as the ones finds in electronics and optics
• numerical methods for the numerical calculation and the resolution of mathematical expressions
• application to derivative and integral calculation
• application to differential equations resolution
• programing in Java and Matlab languages

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to perform:
• mathematical description and processing of noise signals
• numerical calculations
• implementation of numerical methods in Java and Matlab languages

TU10 - Signal Processing

Coordinator contact - zeroual@ucam.ac.ma

TU Objectives

By the end of this course, students should be able to:
• express signal processing systems in mathematical form
• analyze signals in terms of their frequency content
• describe system behavior in terms of frequency content
• describe system behavior in terms of frequency response
• describe system behavior in terms of the Fourier Transform
• analyze mixed analog-digital systems with sampling operations and digital filters
• use the z-transform to analyze discrete-time systems in terms of poles and zeroes
• use complex exponential notation to describe signals and systems
• describe how signal processing is used in many applications
• write MatLab code describing a signal processing system

TU Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of
• a programming language
• differential equations, integration
• physics-bases of electricity and magnetism

TU ECTS credits: 5

TU Content:

1. Continuous signals and systems
• mathematical representation of signals
• classification of signals
• energy and power
• basic continuous-times signals - unit step and unit impulse functions, exponential and sinusoidal signals
• continuous-time systems
• properties of systems
• memoryless systems
• linear systems
• time-invariant systems
• causality
• stability
• the convolution integral
• intercorrelation and autocorrelation
• properties of Linear Time-Invariant system
• the step response of an LTI system
• systems described by differential equations
2. Frequency analysis of continuous-time signals
• the continuous-time Fourier series
• continuous-time Fourier transform
• the Fourier transform and the spectrum
• existence and convergence of the Fourier transform
• properties of Fourier transform pairs
• the Fourier transform for periodic signals
• the Laplace transform
• properties and theorems of the Laplace transform
• the inverse Laplace transform
• analysis of LTI systems using the Laplace transform
3. Sampling of continuous-time signals
• periodic sampling and frequency-domain representation of Sampling:
• reconstruction of a band limited signal from its samples: The sampling Theorem
• the effect of under sampling - aliasing
• discrete-time processing of continuous-time signals
• discrete-time LTI processing of continuous-time signals
• quantization
4. Discrete-time signals and systems
• discrete-time signals
• basic discrete-times signals
• unit step and unit impulse sequences
• exponential and sinusoidal signals
• the representation of signals in terms of impulses
• periodicity properties of discrete-time complex exponentials
• discrete-time systems
• properties of systems
• memory less systems
• linear systems
• time-invariant systems
• causality
• stability
• the convolution sum
• intercorrelation and autocorrelation
• properties of Linear Time-Invariant systems
• the step response of an LTI system
• linear constant-coefficient difference equations
• block diagram representations of LTI systems
5. Frequency analysis of discrete-time signals
• representation of periodic sequences
• the Discrete Fourier Series
• properties of the DFS
• representation of sequences by Fourier transforms
• symmetry properties of the Fourier transform
• Fourier transform theorems
• linearity
• time shifting
• frequency shifting
• Parseval's theorem
• the convolution theorem
• the modulation theorem
• the Fourier transform of periodic signals
• sampling the Fourier transform
• Fourier representation of finite-duration sequences
• the Discrete Fourier Transform
• properties of the DFT
• linearity
• circular shift of a sequence
• duality
• dymmetry
• properties circular convolution
• Fast Fourier Transform
• Decimation-in-Time FFT algorithms
• Decimation-in-Frequency FFT algorithms
6. Analog and Digital Filters
• filter types and classifications
• basic analog filters
• low-pass analog filters
• design of Butterworth analog low-pass filters
• design of Type I Chebyshev analog low-pass filters
• other low-pass filter approximations
• high-pass, band-pass, and band-elimination filters
• digital filters
7. Practical works
• synthesis from a spectrum (Fourier series analysis)
• simulation of continuous-time systems
• time-frequency analysis of signals (spectrogram)
• effects of sampling in discrete time signals
• effects of quantization in discrete time
• discrete-time convolution, correlation and cross-correlation.
• studying time frequency characteristics using continuous time Fourier series
• designing FIR and IIR filters and digital filter.
• frequency response for digital filters

Acquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students should know how to do:
• mathematical representation of discrete-time and continuous-time signals
• signal processing and characterization techniques, such as filtering and frequency response
• conduction of laboratory experiences in computer-based signal processing

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to:
• express signal processing systems in mathematical form
• analyze signals in terms of their frequency content
• describe system behavior in terms of frequency content, frequency response and Fourier Transform
• analyze mixed analog-digital systems with sampling operations, digital filters as well as estimation of signal to noise ratios
• write Labview and/or MatLab scripts describing a signal processing system

TU11 - Instrumentation

Coordinator contact - zeroual@uca.ma

TU Objectives

This TU aims to provide a basic understanding of measurement systems and to introduce the students to many varieties of sensors and transducers available, their operating principles, strengths and weaknesses. By the end of this course the students will be able to:
• understand the principles of operation of commonly used sensors, transducers, and instruments
• gain experience in interpreting technical specifications and selecting sensors and transducers for a given application
• understand terminologies associated with instrumentation systems (e.g., range, sensitivity, dynamic response, calibration, error, accuracy, precision, data uncertainty
• design and analyze sensor circuits and estimate signal to noise ratios
• design an appropriate interface circuit for a sensor with given characteristics

TU Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of:
• electrical circuits in continuous and variable time
• electronics (analog, digital)

TU ECTS credits: 4

TU Content:

1. Fundamental basic instrumentation
• measurements devices
• cables and connectors
• digital power supplies
• digital oscilloscopes
• data acquisition chain
• role and constitution of the chain
• conditions imposed at the measurement chain
• parasites
• metrological features
• static characteristics
• uncertainty of a device
• dynamic characteristics
• estimation of measurement uncertainty due to a device
2. Sensors
• principles
• general
• fundamentals
• definitions and general characteristics
• active sensors
• passive sensors (resistive, inductive, capacitive)
• study of some sensors and transducers
• temperature sensors
• position, displacement, and speed sensors
• force and pressure sensors
• vibration and acceleration sensors
• proximity and presence sensors
• electro-optical sensors
• flow and flow-rate, liquid-level and humidity sensors
3. Conditioners
• conditioner of current sensor
• conditioner of resistive sensor
• conditioners of reactive sensors
4. Data acquisition
• multiplexing
• sampling rate
• analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters
5. Practical works
• measurement devices
• temperature and liquid level sensors
• optical sensors
• conveyor belt-proximity sensors-pneumatic part dispenser or speed control of dc motor using pulse-width modulation

Acquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students should know:
• the measurement basic instrumentation (measurement devices, data acquisition system, metrological features)
• the technical specifications and how to selec sensors and transducers for a given application
• the terminologies associated with instrumentation systems (e.g., range, sensitivity, dynamic response, calibration, error, accuracy, precision, data uncertainty)
• the conditioners of some sensors (current sensors, resistive, active)
• data sampling, multiplexing and conversion A/D & D/A

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to:
• interpret technical specifications and select sensors and transducers for a given application
• design and analyze sensor circuits and estimate signal to noise ratios

TU12 - Optics for embedded systems

TU Coordinator - Raphael Jamier (University of Limoges)

Coordinator contact - raphael.jamier@xlim.fr

TU Objectives

At the end of this unit student should have knowledge of:
• wave optics (interferometry, beam diffraction)
• guidance in conventional optical fibers
• characteristics of LED and laser diodes
• characteristics of Gaussian beam
• characteristics of photo detectors
Moreover, they must be able to:
• analyze problems and perform and interpret calculations within the area of knowledge
• apply the experimental methods presented in the course
• write a well-structured report in which experimental data are presented and analyzed
• search for and use relevant information within the area of knowledge

TU Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of:
• geometrical optics (optical rays, refractive index, Fermat principle, thin lenses, Snell-Descartes laws)
• electromagnetism (plane and spherical waves in homogeneous dielectrics)
• mathematical tools (integral, complex numbers)
• quantum mechanics (particle/wave duality)

TU ECTS credits: 6

TU Content:

1. Basic principles on interferometry
• two plane waves interference
• amplitude division
• intensity patterns
• examples of interferometers
• Michelson
• Mach-Zehnder
• Sagnac
2. Free space propagation
• beam diffraction
• Huygens principle
• Fresnel-Huygens integral
• Gaussian beam (definition, characteristics)
3. Guided optics / geometrical approach in optical fibers
• step-index profile
• ray propagation
• effective index
• numerical aperture
• coupling light into an optical fiber (method, conditions)
• modal dispersion
• ray propagation
• effective index
• numerical aperture
• coupling light into an optical fiber (method, conditions)
• modal dispersion
4. Link budget / power budget
• beer law
• dB / dBm
• optical density
5. Light sources (LED / Laser Diode)
• energy levels / concept of photon / wavelength
• absorption / spontaneous emission
• choice of the material
• emission spectrum / spectral characteristics
• brilliance
• optoelectronics properties (Permitted = f(I)) / efficiency
• power modulation
• electrical / optical efficiency
• temporal characteristics
• spatial characteristics (singlemode / multimode)
• peak power / average power / energy
• fabry-perot cavity (resonance condition)
6. Photodetector (PIN photodiode)
• PIN junction
• choice of the material
• quantum efficiency
• sensitivity
• optoelectronics properties
• polarization method
• photovoltaic mode
• photoconductive mode
7. Practical works
• three kinds of practical classes will be based on a simulation software: 7hours associated to the first, second and fourth topics presented above
• study of a laser diode (based on an experimental set-up): 2,5h associated to the sixth topic presented above
• study of a PIN photo detector (based on experimental set-up): 2,5h associated to the sixth topic presented above

Acquired knowledge

The students at the end of this TU should have acquired knowledge of:
• wave optics (interferometry, beam diffraction)
• guidance in conventional optical fibers
• characteristics of LED and laser diodes
• characteristics of Gaussian beam
• characteristics of photo detectors

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to:
• analyze problems and perform and interpret calculations within the area of knowledge
• apply the experimental methods presented in the course
• write a well-structured report in which experimental data are presented and analyzed
• search for and use relevant information within the area of knowledge

TU13 - Embedded systems

TU Coordinator - Renaat De Craemer (Katholieke Hogeschool Brugge-Oostende)

Coordinator contact - renaat.decraemer@khbo.be

TU Objectives

The student will be able to design, by methodically approach, digitals systems using microcontrollers. By using C-programming, the student will be familiarized with the software development for microcontrollers and embedded systems.

TU Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of:
• the binary notation of numbers, on binary systems and on digital logic
• declaring variables and of the programming instructions: while, repeat until, for

TU ECTS credits: 6

TU Content:

1. Introduction to C-programming - Part I
• data-types, precision of data-types (compiler, microprocessor)
• operators
• logical relational, arithmetic and bitwise
• selection statements
• if...else
• switch
• application of the "Tool chain"
• illustrative examples
2. Introduction to C-programming - Part II
• arrays
• enumerated types
• pointers
• structs, data structures (linked list, stack, queue)
• function pointers
• illustrative examples and practical sessions
3. Introduction to microcontrollers
• architecture
• memory
• dedicated registers
• polling
• interrupts (setup, service routine, priorities)
• exercises
• polling
• interrupts
• interrupt priorities
• behavior of applications with interrupts
4. Bus systems Part I
• introduction of buses for embedded systems
• some detail on I2C, SPI and "one-wire"
• exploration of a sensor using a bus for embedded systems
• analog-to-digital conversion, precision of the conversion, including interrupts
5. Bus systems - Part II
• PS2
• setting up
• practical session
• UART, RS-232
• microcontroller communication
• UART set-up
• practical session on echo service
• (G)LCD interfacing
• theory on LCD setup
• practical session
6. Project work: Combining the previous modules in a system
• reading data from a sensor
• storing a series of values
• data structure
• visualization on an LCD
• sending data to a "receiver"
• RS-232
• data logging
7. Practical works
• practical sessions on illustrative virtual examples
• practical sessions on the implementation of a bus interface
• practical sessions on reading sensor data

Acquired knowledge

The student will get the necessary knowledge on microcontrollers as a system of vital importance for the embedded design of numerous electro-technical applications. This technical unit will develop the student's insight into the hardware and software aspects of microcontroller based systems.

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to:
• design, by methodically approach, digitals systems using microcontrollers
• use C-programming for the software development for microcontrollers and embedded systems

TU14 - Enterprise foundation

TU Coordinator - Bechir Allouch (Virtual University of Tunis)

Coordinator contact - bechir.allouch@uvt.rnu.tn

TU Objectives

To introduce students to the concept of entrepreneurship, to the specificities of managing a small business and to the organizational aspects and managerial activities related to launching and managing a small business;
• to help students appreciate the purposes and audiences for business plans
• to help students understand the structure and content of a business plan, including the reasons for the structure and content
• to guide students in preparing a first draft of their own business plan
In this course students are also expected to interact with the business community, be able to work effectively in teams, and be active participants in discussions.

TU Prerequisites

None

TU ECTS credits: 3

TU Content:

1. Introduction to entrepreneurship
3. Business analysis and strategic planning
4. Financial planning and the business model
6. Practical works
• test for entrepreneurial profile of the student
• construction of a creative, realistic and effective business plan

Acquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students should:
• know the introductory concepts of entrepreneurship as well as the specificities of managing a small business
• have a general understanding of entrepreneurship as an economic activity and the role it plays as a catalyst of economic growth and social development
• know the personal traits and behaviors, and the organizational characteristics associated with successful entrepreneurship
• know the different organizational aspects and managerial activities related to launching and managing a small business

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to:
• prepare a comprehensive strategy for launching a new business
• construct a creative, realistic and effective business plans

UP121 - Update in Optics 1

TU Coordinator - Raphael Jamier (University of Limoges)

Coordinator contact - raphael.jamier@xlim.fr

TU Objectives

This update aims to give all the prerequisites strongly recommended in order to follow the Technical Unit 12.

TU Prerequisites

Basic knowledge in optics

TU ECTS credits: none

TU Content:

1. Geometrical optic
• optical rays
• refractive index
• optical path / Fermat principle
• Snell-Descartes laws / total internal reflection
• thin optical lenses (Lensmaker's equation, Descartes law)
• optical mirror

Acquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students should know:
• the basic principles of geometrical optics (optical rays, refractive index, Fermat principle)
• the Snell-Descartes laws
• thin optical lenses and mirrors

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to obtain missing prerequisites strongly recommended for the TU12

UP122 - Update in Optics 2

TU Coordinator - Raphael Jamier (University of Limoges)

Coordinator contact - raphael.jamier@xlim.fr

TU Objectives

This update aims to go further in the optics' field. It is not mandatory for students to follow the Technical Unit 12.

TU Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of optics and electromagnetism

TU ECTS credits: none

TU Content:

1. Reflexion/Refraction in isotropic medium
• continuity equations of electromagnetic fields across material boundary
• total internal reflection
• reflection / transmission coefficients for light intensity
2. Optical components for signal routing
• single mode optical fiber / modal behavior / dispersion
• modulator, isolator, coupler, switch

Acquired knowledge

By the end of this TU students should know about:
• reflection / refraction phenomena in isotropic medium
• optical components for signal routing

Acquired skills

By the end of this TU students should be able to obtain missing prerequisites to go further into the TU12

UP041 - Update in Electronics

Coordinator contact - ankrim@uca.ma

TU Objectives

The update aims to give all the prerequisites strongly recommended in order to follow all the other Technical Units.

TU Prerequisites

None

TU ECTS credits: none

TU Content:

1. Two terminal and two-port circuits
• two-terminals circuits
• definitions
• generator
• load line and bias point
• passive nonlinear two terminal
• static and dynamic circuit analysis
• equivalent circuit
• two-port circuit
• definitions
• two-port circuits matrices representing
• equivalent circuit
• characteristics
2. Passive filters
• definition
• filters types
• bode plot and decibel
• method of study
• basic transfer function
• ideal integrator and ideal differentiator
• first order low pass-filter and high-pass filter
3. Practical works
• a passive linear two-port
• determination of the parameters of the impedance matrix Z of a two-port circuit
• frequency study